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Garden ponds

The tools

In order to dig out the pond pit, you will either need mechanical assistance, or you will have to dig out the required pit with your own muscle power. A pronounced increase in environmental consciousness has caused the installation of garden ponds to become widespread over the past years. Everything is possible, from a small ready-made pond to a small lake! Here we would like to provide you with some tips on the construction of a liner pond. At the same time, you will receive some recommendations on the selection of plants, as a pond without aquatic plants is only half a pond! Ready-made ponds made of high-quality plastic are available for those wanting a quick installation. We also provide you with tips on correct installation.

Ready-made pond
Pond liner from the roll
Folding rule
Spirit level

The optimum location

Select an open and sunny location. Many water plants will only develop well in sunny waters. The location should have at least five hours of sun per day. A position next to deciduous trees is unfavourable. The leaves will drop to the bottom of the pond and consume oxygen. Due to the addition of nutrients, this will promote the growth of algae.

Install a liner pond

Left side: Dry bank area; right side: Moist bank area

The stated measurements for the plant depth refer to the distance between the root neck and the water surface. These measurements are merely guidelines and are not mandatory.

Flat water zone / Shallow water zone / Deep water zone

1. Once the most favourable location has been selected for the pond, the pond shape is determined. To do this, lay out the size and shape using a piece of string or a garden hose. Then you can start digging the pond out.
2. To do this, dig out in layers of varying depths. Different aquatic plants also require different water depths. The deepest section of the pond should be at least 80 cm in order to allow native plants and fish to survive through the winter. Check the position of the bank sections with your spirit level (for longer distances, lay a board under the folding rule to support it).
3. Before the pond liner is laid into the pit, remove stones and pointed objects. The pressure which is exercised on the liner when it is filled with water is extremely high. Therefore, we recommend that you add a layer of sand so that the liner has a soft bed underneath it. Better still, lay down a pond fleece to protect the liner.
4. The water can now be filled, and the liner edge trimmed in accordance with the bank design. It is possible to form the bank sections before the water is added by allowing the liner to project over the water level. If the liner edge lies below the water level, the bank edges will be moist.

An overview of pond plants

The stated measurements for the plant depth refer to the distance between the root neck and the water surface. These measurements are merely guidelines and are not mandatory.

Flat water zone: 0-30 cm
Shallow water zone: 30-60 cm
Deep water zone: 60 cm and more

Botanical name Enlish name Flower colour Flowering period
Flat water zone      
Acorus calamus Sweet flag Green-yellow, brown VI-VII
Calla palustris Bog arum White VI-IX
Caltha palustris Kingcup Yellow IV-VI
Iris pseudacorus Yellow iris Yolk yellow V-VII
Mentha aquatica Water mint Light purple VI-VIII
Mimulus luteus Monkey musk Yellow-gold V-X
Pontederia cordata Pickerel weed Blue VII-VIII
Shallow water zone      
Butomus umbellatus Grass rush Reddish-white VI-VIII
Hippuris vulgaris Common mare's tail   VII-VIII
Nymphoides peltata Fringed water lily Gold-yellow VI-VII
Sagittaria Arrowhead grass genus White-light pink VI-VIII
Scirpus lacustris Great bulrush Brown VII-VIII
Deep water zone      
Nuphar lutea Yellow water lily Yolk yellow VI-VIII
Nymphaea Water lily genus Dependent on variety VI-IX
Trapa natans Water chestnut Light blue VI-VII
On the water surface      
Salvinia Floating fern genus    
Stratiotes aloides Water soldier   V-VIII
By the pond      
Epilobium Fireweed genus   VII-IX
Trollius Globeflower genus   V-VI
Petasites Butterbur genus   III-IV
Ligularia Leopard plant genus   VII-IX
Hemerocallis Day lily genus   V-VI

Ready-made ponds

Using a ready-made pond, it is possible to create a functioning biotope within the smallest of spaces. There are many shapes of pond available. They can be quickly and easily installed.

1. If the shape is irregular, the ready-made pond is set up at the required position, and the shape of the pit is transferred onto the ground by inserting wooden battens around it.
2. The excavation is simply carried out along the marking, widened by approximately 10 cm all round.
3. The pit is also excavated approximately 10 cm more in depth. Now remove all the stones and pieces of root etc. Then a 10 cm-thick layer of sand can be added into the pit and stamped down.
4. Now the pond basin is inserted, and aligned using the spirit level. Once the pond is aligned on all sides, the intermediate space between the pit and the pond edge is filled with sand and then turned into slurry with water. However, it is essential that you fill the pond with some water before you water the sand, in order to prevent the pond from floating up.